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Literature: THEMATIC ANIMAL POSTAGE STAMPS OF MALAYSIA: STUDY OF STATE NARRATIVES FROM THE COLONIALISM TO THE POST-COLONIALISM

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Abstract

This research explores the visual representation of animals in postage stamps issued in North Borneo, Sarawak, British Malaya and Malaysia from the 19th to the 20th century. Since postage stamps were an official product of the State, this research exemplifies the postage stamp as a part of the visual culture that facilitates different State narratives and reveals their contribution towards the formation of colonial or national identities. Furthermore, the study explores visual art from a sociocultural perspective, intending to augment its value as a piece of historical evidence. It shows the visual representations of postage stamps as a record of the civilising process by examining the changes in animal representation as it shifts from a kaleidoscope of exotic romanticism towards the righteous pride of animal protection in
the postcolonial era. More than hundreds of thematic animal stamps that were issued in Malaysia were examined in order to identify the preferences influencing animal selection in both colonial and postcolonial era. Following that, background studies, theoretical analysis and visual methodologies form the main research approaches. This paper addresses the research gap that State narratives are disputable without any visual cultural element or ideological construct.

11-04-1998 – Currency Heritage / Warison Mata Wang

Gold Coins of the Malay States
The development of currency in the many island states of the Malay Archipelago was very much related to their trade activities. The intoduction of a standard currency evolved from the need to solve problems often encountered in barter trading. The number of gold coins issued then reflected trading requirement, where higher value coins were often used for bigger purchases.

It is known from available records that only four states produced gold coins and they were Kelantan, Johor, Kedah and Terengganu.

Kijang coin of Kelantan (1400-1780)
Between 1400 to 1780 a number of gold coins (Kupang) were known to be minted for use in Patani and Kelantan. Little is known about the history of the Kelantan gold coinage as these coins were not dated. There were three types of Kelantan gold coins; the Kijang coin, the Dinar Matahari or Sun Coin and coins with Arabic inspriptions on both sides. The Kijang coins derived their name from the motif of the Malayan barking deer embossed as the obverse design. This motif has been adopted as the logo for Bank Negara Malaysia.

Kupang coin of Johor (1597-1615)
In the 16th century the state of Johor issued trade coins in gold that were accepted and widely used in South East Asia. They were the Mas and the Kupang. The value of the Mas was about four times that of the value of the Kupang. This Kupang coin was minted during the reign of Sultan Alauddin Riayat Shah II (1597-1615). The coin is octagonal in shape.

Kupang coin of Kedah (1661-1687)
The state of Kedah began to import gold coins from Johor, Patani and Acheh for use in trade from the beginning of the 17th century. Local issues of gold coins, which appeared to have been copied from the contemporary currency of Johor, replaced the imported gold coins during the 17th and 18th centuries. This gold coin was issued during the reign of Sultan Dhiauddin Mukarram Shah (1661-1687).

Mas coin of Terengganu (1793-1808)
Early money in the state of Terengganu took the form of gold and pewter coins, monetary tokens (jokoh) and the coin tree. The octagonal gold coins came in two denominations, the Mas and the Kupang. This Mas coin was issued during the reign of Sultan Zainal Abidin Shah II (1793-1808)

Currency Heritage - Early Coins_20senDUIT MAS TERENGGANU

Currency Heritage - Early Coins_30senDUIT KUPANG KEDAH

Currency Heritage - Early Coins_50senDUIT KUPANG JOHOR

Currency Heritage - Early Coins_RM1DUIT KUPANG KELANTAN

 

Early Coins
Date of Issue: 11.04.1998
20sen -Duit Mas Terengganu
30sen – Duit Kupang Kedah
50sen – Duit Kupang Johor
RM1 – Duit Kupang Kelantan
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